Oles Honchar
Kherson regional
universal scientific library
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Kherson

KHERSON

A Russian fortification named Olexandr-Shantz, the predecessor of modern Kherson was built on the high right bank of the Dnipro during the Russian-Turkish war in 1737.

After the war the territory of the Steppes between the Southern Bug and Dnipro was passed to Russia. A ship-building shipyard, trade quay and fortress were constructed to strengthen its borders in accordance with the decree of Catherine II. She herself chose the name for a future town — Kherson — in honour of ancient Greek colony Khersonesus (situated on the Crimean Peninsula). It happened on June 18, 1778 and this date is considered to be the beginning of modern Kherson.

Have you ever heard such names as Potiornkin-Tavricheskyi, Hannibal, admiral Mordvinov and admiral Ushakov? Their lives were closely connected with the history of Kherson. Prince Potiomkin is one of the initiators of the construction of the pown, Hannibal, the close relative of the famous Russian writer O.Pushkin, was the head of the fortress.

They both were founders of the Black Sea fleet and took part in the construction of warships and training of their crews.

Potiomkin considered Kherson to be his child and he had far-reaching plans concerning it. According to a legend Potiomkin found here the gate of ancient times with the Greek inscription "From here you must take your way to Byzantine".

But for a sudden death his ambitious plans didn't come true. The last will of Potiomkin was to be buried in Kherson, in the city of his unrealised hopes and dreams. Today his grave can be found on the territory of St Katherine Cathedral. Not far from it you can see the remains of an old fortress: fragments of the fortress mound, the Gate and a deep and large fortress well.

In 1787, a remarkable commander O.Suvorov was assigned to the post of the General of Kherson troops. Nowadays the name of the glorified commander has been given to one of the main streets of the city.

At the end of the 18lh century Kherson played a great ^ole in the development of Russian home and foreign economic ties. It was situated on the trade way to France, Italy, Spain and the rest of Europe.

No wonder that in 1803, Kherson was turned into the centre of the province which also included southern cities of Odessa, Mykolaiv and others. And from that time a civil shipbuilding has been developed, agricultural food-processing enterprises. In 1907, the first railway joined Kherson with other big cities of Ukraine, and in 1908, the first local electric power station gave current to the inhabitants. The population exceeded 80,000 in 1914. Kherson became not only administrative but also cultural centre of the Southern region. There were 50 schools that functioned here. A theatre, association of the musicians, libraries and museums worked in Kherson at that time.
In March 1923, Kherson became the centre of Kherson district. Until 1925 it was the part of Odessa province.

In 1925, the population of the city was numbered by more than 46,000. Large industrial enterprises were built there: confectionery factory (1928), canning plant (1929), electric machinery plant (1932), cotton factory (1933), in 1931, there were added some more buildings to the shipyard, Kherson elevator, oil refinery factory and the airport.

22,500 of Kherson people participated in the Great Patriotic war. In August 1941, German troops conquered Kherson land. In March 1944, Kherson was liberated by the troops of colonels Margelov and Dorofeiev.

Now Kherson, the city of two ports, the river and the sea ones, is connected with 42 countries of the world.

Kherson stretches along the high right bank of the river Dnipro and is situated on the plain territory called the Steppe.

Modern Kherson is a large city with the population of 402,9, thousand inhabitants and the area of about 100 square km, the city with a famous history and rich culture.

Kherson is one of the greenest cities of Ukraine — there are a lot of parks in it. The Dnipro flows into the Black Sea, but near Kherson it forms a pleasant recreation zone. The river is fringed with the unique nature of the Southern Ukraine, with its unusual flora and fauna.
The central street of Kherson, an avenue of the admiral Ushakov, begins with the Quay of the Dnipro, where you can find the monument to the First Shipwrights.

Kherson is a big industrial and cultural centre: there are 69 schools for 53 thousand schoolchildren, among them: 4 Lyceums, 3 grammar schools, 5 specialised and 1 national, 2 private schools, Technological University, Teacher's Training University, Agricultural University, Kherson branch of the Ukrainian State Sea Technological University and some private ones.

On the territory of Kherson area the unique natural reserve is located - Askania Nova — the first reserve of Ukraine.

Welcome to Kherson where you can find the place to rest: enjoy picturesque views, walk along green parks and broad streets and meet warm-hearted and friendly people.

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